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Monthly Global Tropical Cyclone Summary January 2004
[Summaries and Track Data] [Prepared by Gary Padgett]


                              JANUARY, 2004

  (For general comments about the nature of these summaries, as well as
  information on how to download the tabular cyclone track files, see
  the Author's Note at the end of this summary.)


                           JANUARY HIGHLIGHTS

  --> Southwest Indian tropical storm crosses Madagascar three times
  --> Very intense South Pacific cyclone devastates Niue
  --> Extremely rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone affects Brazil


               ***** Feature of the Month for January *****


     Beginning in 2000 tropical storms and typhoons forming in the North
  Pacific west of the Dateline are assigned names by JMA taken from a
  new list of Asian names contributed by fourteen nations and territories
  from the western Pacific and eastern Asia.   Names are not allocated
  in alphabetical order and the majority are not personal names--instead
  names of animals, plants, fictional characters, descriptive adjectives,
  places--even foods--are utilized.     The entire list consists of 140
  names and all names will be used before any are repeated.    The last
  name assigned in 2003 was Lupit in late November while one tropical
  cyclone, Sudal, has already been named in 2004.

     The next 36 names on the list are (** indicates name has already
  been assigned in 2004):

       Sudal **          Namtheun          Sarika            Talas
       Nida              Malou             Haima             Noru
       Omais             Meranti           Meari             Kulap
       Conson            Rananim           Ma-on             Roke
       Chanthu           Malakas           Tokage            Sonca
       Dianmu            Megi              Nock-ten          Nesat
       Mindulle          Chaba             Muifa             Haitang
       Tingting          Aere              Merbok            Nalgae
       Kompasu           Songda            Nanmadol          Banyan

     Since 1963 PAGASA has independently named tropical cyclones forming
  in the Philippines' AOR--from 115E to 135E and from 5N to 25N (except
  for a portion of the northwestern corner of the above region).  Even
  though the Philippines contributed ten names to the international list
  of typhoon names, PAGASA still continues to assign their own names for
  local use within the Philippines.  It is felt that familiar names are
  more easily remembered in the rural areas and that having a PAGASA-
  assigned name helps to underscore the fact that the cyclone is within
  PAGASA's AOR and potentially a threat to the Philippines.    Another
  consideration may be PAGASA's desire to assign a name when a system is
  first classified as a tropical depression.    Since tropical and/or
  monsoon depressions can bring very heavy rainfall to the nation which
  often results in disastrous flooding, the weather service feels that
  assigning a name helps to enhance public attention given to a system.

     Beginning with 2001 PAGASA began using new sets of cyclone names.  
  These do not all end in "ng" as did the older names.  Four sets of 25
  names will be rotated annually; thus, the set for 2004 will be re-used
  in 2008.   In case more than 25 systems are named in one season, an
  auxiliary set will be used.   PAGASA names for 2004 are (** indicates 
  name has already been assigned in 2004):

           Ambo **             Julian              Rolly
           Butchoy **          Karen               Siony
           Cosme               Lawin               Tonyo
           Dindo               Marce               Unding
           Enteng              Nina                Violeta
           Frank               Ofel                Winnie
           Gener               Pablo               Yoyong
           Helen               Quinta              Zosimo

     In the unlikely event that the list is exhausted, the following
  names would be allocated as needed:  Alakdan, Baldo, Clara, Dencio,
  Estong, Felipe, Gardo, Heling, Ismael, Julio.

       **** Index to Feature of the Month Articles for 2003 ****

        (also Index to Feature of the Month Articles for 2002)









                  for the SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN
                            ACTIVITY BY BASINS

  ATLANTIC (ATL) - North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico

  Activity for January:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTH ATLANTIC (SAT) - Atlantic Ocean South of the Equator

  Activity for January:  1 tropical depression or tropical storm

                           TROPICAL CYCLONE
                           18 - 21 January

     During a rather pronounced mid-January lull in tropical cyclone
  activity across the Southern Hemisphere, a surprise popped up off the
  coast of Brazil.   A system which in satellite imagery appeared to be
  either a strong tropical depression or weak tropical storm formed to
  the southeast of Salvador, Brazil.   On the morning of 20 January Mark
  Lander alerted the tropical cyclone community to the presence of a small
  system off the Brazilian coast which appeared to be a tropical cyclone.
  The small system was located along a trough which extended southeastward
  from a large monsoon-like low pressure area over tropical South
  America.  This system is only the second known tropical cyclone to be
  sighted over the South Atlantic since the advent of meteorological
  satellites in the late 1960s.  The first was a system off the coast
  of Angola in April, 1991, which was either a strong tropical depression
  or else a minimal tropical storm.

     According to Roger Edson, the system began to take shape on the 17th
  along an old trough-axis boundary.  The system appeared to have reached
  its peak of development on 19 January when it exhibited a small,
  transient CDO and well-defined curved bands along its western side.
  According to Tony Cristaldi, around 1115 UTC the cyclone was centered
  near 15S, 37W, or approximately 150 nm southeast of Salvador.   By late
  on the 19th it was undergoing strong southerly shear; however, a tightly-
  wound low-level vortex was visible in satellite imagery.    The LOW
  weakened as it moved westward and inland along the coast of Brazil.

     Needless to say, there were very few synoptic observations from the
  region of the cyclone.  Derrick Herndon relates that the AMSU pressure
  estimation algorithm indicated a minimum MSLP of 1003 mb around 0900 UTC
  on 19 January.  QuikScat data indicated peak winds of around 30 kts late
  on the 19th.  Ship C6I09 reported a pressure of 1007.7 mb and southerly
  winds of 25 kts at 19/1800 UTC while located 50 nm west of the center.
  The same ship reported 1009.6 mb and northwest winds of 30 kts six
  hours later while situated northeast of the center.    These ship
  observations suggest that the system could have been a minimal tropical
  storm, but the peak intensity of the cyclone is a matter of conjecture.

     A few days after the system had moved inland, Kevin Boyle sent me
  a snippet of news he'd located on the BBC Weather Site:  "Intensely
  heavy rain has continued to deluge much of Brazil, in particular the
  northeastern corridor.  This has led to massive flooding, destroying
  not only crops but also people's homes.  A state of emergency has been
  declared in Aracaju after hundreds of homes were washed away.

     "In Alagoas, the river overflowed and burst its banks, flooding
  further homes, destroying bridges and causing parts of the highway to
  collapse.  But with heavy rain forecast to last until the end of
  January, the end is not yet in sight.  According to past records, it
  has already rained more this month so far than at any time in the
  last 39 years."

     With a large monsoon LOW covering much of Brazil, it seems likely
  that the aforementioned rainfall was not completely attributable to the
  tropical cyclone, but it could have certainly been an enhancing factor.

     No official name was applied to this system.  Kevin Boyle unofficially
  dubbed it Tropical Cyclone "Samba" in honor of a popular type of
  Brazilian music, so that name got used in e-mail messages discussing
  the system.  But because the name was not officially assigned by any
  warning agency, I have refrained from referring to it as "Samba" in this

     A special thanks to all the persons named in the above report who
  contributed bits and pieces of information regarding this very
  interesting weather system.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)


  NORTHEAST PACIFIC (NEP) - North Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 180

  Activity for January:  No tropical cyclones

  NORTHWEST PACIFIC (NWP) - North Pacific Ocean West of Longitude 180

  Activity for January:  No tropical cyclones


  NORTH INDIAN OCEAN (NIO) - Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea

  Activity for January:  No tropical cyclones


  SOUTHWEST INDIAN OCEAN (SWI) - South Indian Ocean West of Longitude 90E

  Activity for January:  1 severe tropical storm
                         1 intense tropical cyclone

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Southwest Indian Ocean tropical cyclones are the warnings issued by
  the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre on La Reunion Island, part of
  Meteo France (MFR), and the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre
  for the basin.    However, tropical cyclones in this region are named 
  by the sub-regional warning centres on Mauritius and Madagascar with
  longitude 55E being the demarcation line between their respective
  areas of warning responsibility.  The La Reunion centre only advises
  these agencies regarding the intensity of tropical systems.  References
  to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period unless otherwise

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from MFR's coordinates by usually
  40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the source of the
  1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included in the
  tracks file.    Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

           Southwest Indian Ocean Tropical Activity for January

     As the month of January opened Severe Tropical Storm Darius was
  approaching Mauritius.  The storm passed very close to the east side of
  the island on the 2nd, then scurried away into higher latitudes and
  became extratropical on the 4th.  The tropical Southwest Indian Ocean
  then lay very quiet until the last week of the month when it became
  very active.  A very broad area of disturbed weather extended from the
  African coast eastward for several hundred miles.  One portion of this
  disturbed area was identified as Tropical Disturbance 05 by MFR and
  bulletins were issued from 22 to 24 January.   Another disturbance
  in the Mozambique Channel was numbered Tropical Disturbance 06 and
  soon developed into Severe Tropical Storm Elita, which crossed the
  island of Madagascar three times.   The easternmost part of the broad
  disturbed area began to take shape on the 27th and ultimately developed
  into intense Tropical Cyclone Frank, which fortunately remained well
  away from any populated areas.

     At about the same time that Elita and Frank were getting organized,
  another disturbance began to develop far to the east, just west of
  longitude 90E.  MFR numbered this system as Tropical Disturbance 08, but
  it soon moved eastward into the Australian Region where it strengthened
  into Tropical Cyclone Linda.   Finally, on 26 January Julian Heming of
  the UK Meteorological Office sent around some satellite pictures of a
  low-pressure system well to the south of Madagascar and southeast of
  southern Africa.   According to Julian, the system had emerged off
  southern Mozambique a couple of days earlier, and while it appeared
  to have become extratropical, Julian felt that it could have briefly
  been a tropical cyclone earlier.   Roger Edwards felt that at best
  the system was subtropical, while Roger Edson stated that it looked
  extratropical to him.  David Roth offered the opinion that it appeared
  to be an occluded system with a well-defined frontal band extending
  northwestward into southern Africa.  In the imagery supplied by Julian,
  the LOW did exhibit a fairly small and tightly-wound circulation typical
  of tropical and subtropical cyclones.

     Reports on Elita and Frank follow.  A very special thanks to Kevin
  Boyle for "travelling" outside his "AOR" and writing the report on 
  Tropical Cyclone Frank.  It really helped me out.

                          TROPICAL STORM ELITA
                            (MFR-06 / TC-09S)
                        26 January - 12 February

  Elita: contributed by Malawi

  A. Storm Origins

     The beginnings of the unusual Tropical Storm Elita, which was to
  cross the island of Madagascar three times, can be traced to an area of
  convection which formed on 25 January in the Mozambique Channel only
  about 50 nm off the west coast of Madagascar.  Satellite animations
  indicated the presence of persistent convection over a circulation in
  the middle and lower levels of the atmosphere.  A 200-mb analysis
  indicated favorable upper-level diffluence but moderate vertical shear
  over the region.  JTWC assessed the development potential as poor.
  This was raised to fair at 1800 UTC as cycling deep convection continued
  to increase near the LLCC.  MFR issued the first bulletin on Tropical
  Disturbance 06 at 0600 UTC on 26 January.

     The disturbance was upgraded to tropical depression status (30 kts)
  at 26/1200 UTC, and at 1300 UTC JTWC issued a TCFA for the system.
  JTWC's first warning on TC-09S followed at 1800 UTC.  The initial MSW
  was 35 kts (1-min avg), and a 26/1818 UTC SSM/I pass depicted deep
  convection wrapping into a well-defined LLCC.  At the time TC-09S was
  centered approximately 215 nm west-northwest of Antananarivo, Madagascar,
  and drifting east-southeastward at 3 kts.   The developing tropical
  depression was upgraded to tropical storm intensity and named Elita at
  0000 UTC on 27 January by the meteorological service of Madagascar.

  B. Storm History

     Shortly after being named, Tropical Storm Elita embarked on an
  unusual northward trek through the Mozambique Channel as it was steered
  by a low to mid-level ridge located to the west.  Intensification was
  rather slow for about 24 hours--in fact, MFR briefly downgraded Elita
  to depression status at 27/1800 UTC.   However, by 28/0000 UTC the
  storm was beginning to intensify rather rapidly.  MFR upped the winds
  to 40 kts, and JTWC's MSW (1-min avg) jumped from 35 kts at 27/1200 UTC
  to 55 kts at 28/0000 UTC.  Elita reached the northernmost point of its
  track around 0600 UTC on the 28th when it was centered approximately
  85 nm west-northwest of Mahajanga.  A ridge to the north and east
  became the primary steering mechanism and Elita turned east-southeastward
  toward the west coast of Madagascar as it intensified sharply.  At
  1200 UTC the storm was centered about 50 nm west-northwest of Mahajanga
  and the MSW was estimated at 60 kts (per MFR and JTWC).  Elita made
  landfall around 1500 UTC just west of Mahajanga and began to quickly
  weaken thereafter.   JTWC issued their final warning on Elita at 29/0000
  UTC, but MFR did not drop the system.  It was downgraded to a depression
  at 29/1800 UTC, but the MFR bulletin noted that deep convective activity
  was rebuilding over seas in the eastern semicircle.

     Elita moved southeastward across north-central Madagascar following
  landfall, and by 0000 UTC on 30 January the center had emerged into the
  South Indian Ocean just off the east coast.  Winds had dropped to 25 kts
  but MFR forecast the system to re-intensify.  After moving offshore the
  depression drifted southward for about 24 hours, paralleling the eastern
  coast of Madagascar.  MFR re-upgraded Elita to tropical storm status with
  40-kt winds at 0000 UTC on 31 January.    However, the storm made a
  westward turn which took it back inland near Mananjary around 0600 UTC.
  Elita was once more downgraded to depression status at 31/1200 UTC.
  (JTWC did not issue any warnings during this second phase of Elita's
  life.  A TCFA was issued at 30/2200 UTC, but was cancelled after the
  system had moved back inland.)

     The tropical depression moved steadily westward across Madagascar
  and by 31/1800 UTC was located just inland from the western shoreline
  about 170 nm west-southwest of Antananarivo.  JTWC re-initiated warnings
  on Elita at this time with the MSW (1-min avg) estimated at 35 kts, based
  on satellite CI estimates.   Significant intensification was forecast
  since deep convection was increasing and animated water vapor imagery
  indicated good outflow in both poleward and equatorward directions.
  After re-emerging into the Mozambique Channel, Elita's motion became
  northwesterly with gradual slowing in forward speed.  The forecast
  intensification verified--MFR re-upgraded the system to tropical storm
  status at 1200 UTC on 1 February, and to 45 kts at 1800 UTC.  (JTWC's
  MSW estimate (1-min avg) at 1800 UTC was 55 kts.)  Elita was then
  centered approximately 250 nm west of Antananarivo and its forward
  motion had slowed to only 3 kts.   A mid-level ridge which was building
  to the north was forecast to become the dominant steering mechanism and
  ultimately cause Elita to move back eastward toward the coast of

     The forecast verified--by 0600 UTC on 2 February Elita was moving
  southeastward.  The storm also continued to strengthen.  At 1200 UTC
  MFR upped the intensity to 55 kts, and at 1800 UTC JTWC increased the
  MSW (1-min avg) to 65 kts, based on CI estimates of 65 and 77 kts.
  Based on MFR's bulletins, Elita once again reached a peak intensity
  of 60 kts at 0000 UTC on 3 February, shortly before striking Madagascar's
  west coast just south of Morondava.  The storm began weakening once
  inland--MFR downgraded it to depression status at 1800 UTC, although
  JTWC's MSW estimate (1-min avg) was 45 kts.   By 0000 UTC on the 4th,
  the center was back over the waters of the South Indian Ocean, emerging
  off the coast just south of where it had made its second landfall a
  few days earlier.   Both MFR's and JTWC's forecasts called for Elita
  to re-intensify, but this was not to be.  The system underwent a rapid
  acceleration early on the 4th--at 0600 UTC the center was located about
  350 nm southwest of Reunion Island, moving southeastward at 22 kts.
  The convection and maximum surface winds had shifted poleward of the
  exposed LLCC due to the effects of a strengthening upper-tropospheric

     JTWC issued their final warning on Elita at 04/1800 UTC, placing the
  center approximately 440 nm southwest of Reunion Island.  The tropical
  storm had been sheared apart and only a fully-exposed LLCC remained.
  Elita was now tracking slowly southwestward in response to a low-level
  ridge passing poleward of the system.  MFR classified Elita as an
  extratropical gale at 0000 UTC on 5 February.  For the next week the LOW
  meandered very erratically over the South Indian Ocean to the south
  and southwest of Reunion Island.  A plot of the operational track from
  MFR's website resembles a tangled strand of spaghetti dropped onto a
  map from on high.  MFR continued issuing warnings on the extratropical
  LOW since gales were being reported.  The system wandered eastward to
  a point south-southeast of Reunion on the 10th, then began to pick up
  speed toward the southwest.  The final MFR bulletin, issued at 0600 UTC
  on the 12th, placed the weakening gale about 650 nm southwest of
  Reunion Island.

     Elita's crossing Madagascar three times is highly unusual, but not
  unprecedented.  In late January/early February of 1971 Tropical Cyclone
  Felicie accomplished the same feat.  The earlier cyclone actually made
  four landfalls on the island.    Forming near Agalega on 17 January,
  Felicie struck the northeast coast of Madagascar just south of Vohemar
  with intense hurricane force winds.  Vohemar reported peak gusts reaching
  98 kts, which was the instrument's upper limit.  A few hours later the
  anemometer blew down.  The town reported 246.3 mm of rain in 24 hours.
  After emerging into the Mozambique Channel, Felicie moved slowly south-
  ward paralleling the west coast of Madagascar.  The storm described a
  small counter-clockwise loop on the 24th and 25th which brought the
  center just onshore south of Besalampy with tropical storm-force winds.
  Felicie then moved westward, describing a clockwise loop off the coast
  of Mozambique on the 27th and 28th.  The storm then moved eastward and
  struck the west coast of Madagascar south of Maintirano with hurricane-
  force winds and torrential rains.  After emerging into the South Indian
  Ocean on 31 January, Felicie then made an abrupt turn to the southwest
  and struck the coast again, this time near Mananjary.  Mananjary reported
  a peak gust of 80 kts and a 24-hour rainfall total of 218.8 mm.  Felicie
  then re-emerged into the southern Mozambique Channel but soon turned
  southward and moved into higher latitudes where it lost its tropical
  characteristics.  (This information on Tropical Cyclone Felicie was taken
  in part from the summary of the 1970-71 tropical cyclone season published
  by the Mauritius Meteorological Department, and in part from information
  supplied by Patrick Hoareau--a special thanks to Patrick for sending the

  C. Meteorological Observations

     The only surface observations I have available from Madagascar are
  from Mahajanga--the point of Elita's first landfall.  These were sent
  by Patrick Hoareau.   At 28/1200 UTC the station reported a peak 10-min
  avg wind of 47 kts, gusting to 78 kts.  One hour later the sustained
  wind had reached 55 kts with a peak gust of 85 kts.  At 1400 UTC the
  MSW reported was 68 kts with a peak gust of 98 kts.   Neither MFR nor
  JTWC were classifying Elita as a hurricane (tropical cyclone), but the
  synoptic reports from Mahajanga, if verified, certainly suggest that the
  storm was of hurricane intensity.  Mahajanga also reported 248 mm of
  rain in association with Elita, but I do not know if this represents a
  storm-period total or a maximum 24-hour rainfall.

     During the extratropical stage of Elita's long life, strong winds and
  heavy seas buffeted Mauritius and Reunion Island, although the storm's
  center was several hundred miles away.  Sea-level pressures ranged from
  999 to 1002 mb, and the high waves sank one boat.   (This information
  from Thomas Birger--thanks to Thomas for sending it along.)

  D. Damage and Casualties

     Elita's three passages across Madagascar proved to be quite damaging
  to the island.  Press reports indicate that 29 persons lost their lives
  while another 100 were injured.  Also, three persons were reported
  missing.  Over 12,400 houses were destroyed, leaving more than 44,000
  persons homeless.   Roads, water supplies, electricity and communications
  were disrupted by the storm and its attendant heavy rainfalls.  A large
  percentage of the rice, corn and manioc crops--the food base for much of
  the population--was destroyed.  Also several works of art and national
  heritage sites were damaged or destroyed.

     Additional articles on Elita's aftermath in Madagascar can be accessed
  at the following link:>

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

                       TROPICAL CYCLONE FRANK
                         (MFR-07 / TC-10S)
                       27 January - 7 February

  Frank: contributed by the Seychelles

  A. Storm Origins

     On 25 January three areas of convection were being monitored by JTWC
  through the issuance of STWOs.  Two were located close to and either
  side of Madagascar while the third disturbance, which was to become
  Frank, was located farther to the east, about 700 nm off the northeast
  coast of Madagascar.  Animated multi-spectral satellite imagery showed
  a weak LLCC associated with the area of convection while an upper air
  analysis showed a favourable environment with moderate wind shear. The
  potential for further development was assessed as poor through the 25th
  and upgraded to fair at 26/1000 UTC following an increase in convection
  and a better-defined LLCC.  Following the appearance of spiral banding
  JTWC issued a TCFA at 27/0130 UTC and issued the first warning at 1200
  UTC on the 27th, estimating the MSW (1-min avg) at 30 kts.  At the same
  time MFR released their first bulletin on Tropical Disturbance 07 with
  the 10-min avg MSW estimated at 25 kts.

  B. Storm History

     At the time of the initial warning TC-10S was located approximately
  520 nm west-southwest of Diego Garcia and moving very slowly south-
  southeastward at 2 kts.  At 0600 UTC on 28 January both JTWC and MFR
  upgraded the system to tropical storm intensity, raising their
  respective intensity estimates to 50 kts (1-min avg) and 40 kts (10-min
  avg).  Steered by a low to mid-level ridge to the south and east,
  Tropical Storm Frank began to trot towards the south a little more
  quickly at 8 kts.  Prospects for further intensification were good and
  outflow was being enhanced by two upper-level LOWS centred to the west
  and southwest.  The MSW was raised to 65 kts (MFR followed suit at 1800
  UTC) as Frank began the first leg of a cyclonic loop that it was set to
  undertake over the course of the following two to three days.

     At 0600 UTC on 29 January Tropical Cyclone Frank was centred 430 nm
  northeast of Mauritius and moving south-southwest at 5 kts.  Further
  strengthening occurred with Frank becoming a 90-kt storm, but there was
  no further intensification during the 29th as the system slowly moved
  southwestward, curving onto a west-northwesterly track by the end of
  the day.  The next day, strengthening had resumed and, based on
  satellite CI estimates of 102 and 115 kts, JTWC upped the MSW to
  105 kts.  A further increase saw winds reaching 115 kts, which was
  maintained through 31 January and the 1st day of February.   Enhanced
  infrared satellite imagery at 31/1800 UTC showed a distinct 15-nm
  irregular eye.  Frank was expected to pick up a little more strength
  as long as outflow remained favourable.

     At 0600 UTC on 1 February Tropical Cyclone Frank was tracking eastward
  at 5 kts some 760 nm southwest of Diego Garcia with a MSW (1-min avg)
  of 115 kts.  A 01/1646 UTC microwave SSM/I pass revealed a small,
  symmetrical 10-nm eye and this was maintained as Frank reached a peak
  intensity of 125 kts at 02/0600 UTC.  (After peaking at 105 kts (10-min
  avg) at 30/1800 UTC and 31/0000 UTC, MFR's intensity estimates were
  falling as JTWC was raising theirs.  However, MFR upped the MSW back up
  to 105 kts at 02/0000 UTC.  The lowest CP estimated by Reunion was
  925 mb.)  The 125-kt peak lasted for approximately 24 hours before the 
  MSW dropped down to 100 kts at 03/0600 UTC, but this intensity was 
  maintained through the 3rd as Frank slowed and turned toward the south-
  southeast.  A second intensification period began, culminating in a 
  second peak of 115 kts (1-min avg) at 04/0600 UTC.  Frank had completed 
  a hairpin turn and was now moving rather sluggishly toward the southwest.
  A gradual weakening set in and this was forecast to continue as the 
  system tracked towards cooler SSTs and heavy shearing conditions.

     At 0600 UTC on 5 February Frank was moving southward at 3 kts far
  to the east of Mauritius (700 nm). At this time the MSW fell below
  100 kts and further weakening continued with Frank barely at hurricane
  (cyclone) strength at 0600 UTC the next day.  Frank began to accelerate
  toward the east-southeast as winds fell to tropical storm intensity.
  The last advisory issued by JTWC located Frank a little over 1000 nm
  east-southeast of Mauritius, moving east-southeastward in the face of
  strong easterly shear.  Deep convection surrounding the LLCC had all
  but dissipated and the remnant extratropical system joined up with a
  weak baroclinic boundary.  MFR continue to release bulletins until
  1200 UTC on 7 February.

  C. Damage and Casualties

     As Tropical Cyclone Frank remained over open waters of the southern
  Indian Ocean, there were no damage or casualties reported.

  (Report written by Kevin Boyle)



  Activity for January:  2 tropical cyclones

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Northwest Australia/Southeast Indian Ocean tropical cyclones are 
  the warnings and advices issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning
  Centres at Perth, Western Australia, and Darwin, Northern Territory. 
  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging period
  unless otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from the Australian centres' coor-
  dinates by usually 40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the
  source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included
  in the tracks file.   Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

               Northwest Australia/Southeast Indian Ocean
                     Tropical Activity for January

     Two minor tropical cyclones roamed the waters off northwestern
  Australia and the Southeast Indian Ocean during January.  The first,
  Tropical Cyclone Ken, began as a monsoon depression over land which
  moved westward into the waters of the Timor Sea.  Ken tracked westward
  for several days as a tropical LOW.  It was finally upgraded to a
  tropical cyclone on the 4th, but only for about 24 hours.   The origins
  of Tropical Cyclone Linda lay west of 90E, where MFR had begun bulletins
  on the system as Tropical Disturbance 08.  However, the LOW moved east-
  ward into Perth's AOR and was named Linda on 30 January.  Linda peaked
  at 55 kts on the 31st but quickly weakened thereafter as it moved south-
  ward into a region of strong vertical shear.   Reports follow on Ken
  and Linda.

                          TROPICAL CYCLONE KEN
                             1 - 6 January

     On 30 December the Tropical Weather Outlook from Darwin indicated
  that a weak 1006-mb LOW was situated in the southern Gulf of Carpentaria.
  The system was forecast to track westward across the Northern Territory
  during the following days, but since the system would be over land, no
  tropical cyclone formation was expected.   The next day the LOW was well
  inland but a monsoon trough lay across northern Australia, and another
  LOW was expected to form in the trough and moved offshore in a couple of
  days.  The probability for tropical cyclogenesis would then be high.
  The new LOW appeared well-organized and JTWC issued a TCFA at 1500 UTC on
  1 January in anticipation of the LOW's strengthening after it had moved
  offshore.   At 01/0700 UTC Perth began issuing High Seas Weather Warnings
  and Tropical Cyclone Advices as the system began to slowly move out over
  the Timor Sea.   The initial JTWC warning on TC-08S was issued at 1800
  UTC and placed the center of the LOW about 320 nm northeast of Port
  Hedland and moving westward at 10 kts.  The warning intensity of 25 kts
  was based on CI estimates of 25 and 30 kts.  The tropical LOW was fore-
  cast to track westward over the next couple of days along the equatorial
  periphery of a mid-level ridge to the southeast.

     The system continued tracking westward on 2 January.  JTWC increased
  the MSW to 35 kts (1-min avg) at 1200 UTC while a concurrent bulletin
  from Perth noted that monsoonal gales could be expected in the northern
  quadrants.  Microwave imagery at the time revealed a fully-exposed LLCC
  approximately 70 nm to the southeast of the deep convection.  Little
  change in intensity was noted on the 3rd, and the system continued
  marching westward, but turning to the southwest by around 1800 UTC.
  Dvorak ratings remained around T2.0 and T2.5--35 kts was the peak MSW
  (1-min avg) assigned by JTWC during the cyclone's life.  The south-
  westerly motion continued on 4 January as an approaching shortwave
  trough weakened the steering ridge.  At 1800 UTC the center was located
  approximately 250 nm north-northeast of Learmonth, tracking southwest-
  ward at 4 kts.   Some of the CI estimates reached 45 kts on the 4th,
  and at 1900 UTC Perth upgraded the LOW to Tropical Cyclone Ken with
  the MSW estimated at 40 kts (10-min avg), which was to be that agency's
  peak intensity for Ken.

     Ken tracked steadily south-southwestward on 5 January, reaching a
  position about 75 nm north-northeast of Learmonth by 1800 UTC.  The
  remarks in the 0600 UTC JTWC warning are very illustrative about the
  subjectivity of Dvorak analysis:  satellite CI estimates at 0600 UTC
  were 25, 30, 35 and 45 kts.   By 1800 UTC CI estimates were 25 and
  30 kts, so JTWC decreased the MSW to 25 kts.  Perth issued an interim
  bulletin at 1900 UTC, downgrading Ken to a tropical LOW only 24 hours
  after it had been named.  JTWC issued their final warning on Ken at
  1200 UTC on 6 January, placing the weakening 20-kt center approximately
  50 nm northwest of Learmonth.  The system no longer exhibited any deep
  convection due to the advection of cooler, drier air as indicated by
  the presence of cold-air stratocumulus clouds near the center.  Also,
  synoptic and satellite analysis revealed that the former cyclone had
  taken on the characteristics of a trough.

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from short-lived
  Tropical Cyclone Ken.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)

                         TROPICAL CYCLONE LINDA
                            (TC-11S / MFR-08)
                        28 January - 1 February

     An area of disturbed weather developed in the eastern portion of
  the Southwest Indian Ocean on 27 January.  Conditions favored further
  intensification and JTWC issued a TCFA at 0500 UTC on the 28th with
  the system located roughly 1000 nm east-northeast of Diego Garcia, or
  several hundred miles northwest of the Cocos Islands.  A microwave
  pass at 28/0015 UTC indicated that the LLCC was consolidating with
  deep convection increasing and organizing around the center, although
  the convection was still somewhat cyclic.  A 200-mb analysis indicated
  moderate upper-level diffluence and weak to moderate vertical shear.
  At 28/0600 UTC MFR initiated bulletins on the system, identifying it
  as Tropical Disturbance 08.  A microwave pass at 28/1327 UTC revealed
  a LLCC on the northeastern edge of the cycling deep convection.  JTWC
  issued their first warning on TC-11S at 0000 UTC on 29 January with an
  initial warning intensity of 35 kts.  The LOW's center was located
  about 400 nm northwest of the Cocos Islands, moving east-southeastward
  at 10 kts.   The system was being steered by westerly flow along the
  southern periphery of a low to mid-level ridge located north and east
  of the LOW.  Vertical shear over the region was still moderate.

     TC-11S continued to track south-southeastward on 29 and 30 January.
  By 30/1200 UTC at least one CI estimate had risen to 45 kts.  At 0400
  UTC Perth named the system Tropical Cyclone Linda with the MSW estimated
  at 45 kts (10-min avg).  At 1200 UTC Linda's center was only about
  70 nm west-northwest of the Cocos Islands, moving southeastward at
  8 kts.  The center, which previously had been fully-exposed and well-
  removed from the deepest convection, had become partially-exposed to
  the northeast of the deep convection.  By 31/0000 UTC Linda was located
  about 160 nm south-southwest of the Cocos Islands and moving southward
  at 14 kts.  The storm had become slightly better organized with deep
  convection increasing over the LLCC.  Perth upped the intensity to
  55 kts while JTWC's peak MSW (1-min avg) was 45 kts.   By 0000 UTC on
  1 February Tropical Cyclone Linda had turned to a south-southwesterly
  heading about 330 nm south-southwest of the Cocos Islands.  The LLCC
  had become partially-exposed, and further weakening was forecast due
  to an upper-level trough of cold, dry air to the west.  Perth lowered
  the MSW to 40 kts at 02/0400 UTC, and JTWC dropped their MSW estimate
  to 35 kts (1-min avg) at 1200 UTC.

     Linda continued to weaken as it moved south-southwestward across the
  South Indian Ocean.  JTWC dropped the intensity to 35 kts (1-min avg)
  at 01/1200 UTC as animated multi-spectral imagery revealed an exposed
  LLCC with no deep convection.   Perth downgraded the cyclone and issued
  their final gale warning at 1600 UTC, and JTWC issued their final warning
  at 1800 UTC.  The weakening system was then located approximately 430 nm
  south-southwest of the Cocos Islands and still moving slowly toward the
  south-southwest into an unfavorable environment of confluence and
  moderate vertical shear.

     No damage or casualties are known to have resulted from Tropical
  Cyclone Linda.

  (Report written by Gary Padgett)



  Activity for January:  1 overland monsoon depression

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  Northeast Australia/Coral Sea tropical cyclones are the warnings
  and advices issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres at
  Brisbane, Queensland, and Darwin, Northern Territory, and on very
  infrequent occasions, by the centre at Port Moresby, Papua New
  Guinea.  References to sustained winds imply a 10-minute averaging
  period unless otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from the Australian centres' coor-
  dinates by usually 40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings are also the
  source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind values included
  in the tracks file.   Additionally, information describing details of
  satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation features included in
  the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC warnings.

                     Northeast Australia/Coral Sea
                     Tropical Activity for January

     No tropical cyclones occurred over waters of the Gulf of Carpentaria
  and Coral Sea during January.  A large low-pressure system which began
  in late December was causing gales over a wide area just west of 160E
  as the month opened, but the system had weakened to below gale force
  by 2 January.  More information on this system can be found in the
  December tropical cyclone summary.   The only other significant system
  during January was a monsoon depression which formed near the south-
  western corner of the Gulf of Carpentaria, subsequently moving south-
  eastward across Queensland and part of New South Wales.    The LOW
  brought heavy rainfall to an extensive area, which although helping to
  relieve drought conditions in many areas, nonetheless was responsible for
  widespread flooding.   Following is a report on this system written by
  Simon Clarke--a special thanks to Simon for his assistance.

                          MONSOON DEPRESSION
                            10 - 17 January

     A significant monsoon LOW formed over land in the Arnhem Land 
  district of the Northern Territory on 10/11 January 2004. This LOW 
  was responsible for dragging a deep layer of unstable tropical 
  moisture from the Coral Sea and producing a significant rain event 
  across much of drought-ravaged Queensland and into some parts of New 
  South Wales over the following week.
     By 12 January 2004, the LOW had blanketed parts of the Northern 
  Territory Top End with heavy rain.  In the Northern Territory, Limmen 
  River, near the southwest corner of the Gulf of Carpentaria, recorded 
  187.2 mm in the 24 hours ending at 9 AM.  Nearby on the north coast, 
  Jabiru recorded 101.2 mm and Oenpelli 94.8 mm.  The LOW gave general 
  falls of between 100 mm to 300 mm to the northern parts of the 
  Territory, with moderate flooding in the middle reaches of the Daly 
  River in the Territory's northwest.

     The monsoon LOW deepened to 998 hPa and by 13/0600 UTC was tracking 
  inland close to the southeastern Gulf of Carpentaria on a south- 
  southeasterly path.  By 15/0600 UTC the LOW had moved slowly through 
  the northwestern and inland central regions of Queensland maintaining 
  intensity at 996 hPa. 
     On 15 January Mount Isa, Queensland, reported its highest daily 
  rainfall record of 198 mm in the 24 hours to 9 AM since observations 
  commenced in 1926 (previous record was 157.5 mm on 14 January 1957). 
  The highest 24-hour report was 246 mm at Moondarra.
     The LOW produced widespread flooding in all the western rivers of 
  Queensland with major road links being cut and forcing air drops of 
  food supplies.  During this period, the Bureau of Meteorology issued 
  severe weather warnings for strong winds and torrential rain mainly 
  for the area to the south and east of the LOW.

     By 0600 UTC on 16 January the LOW had commenced a southeastward 
  acceleration while still delivering heavy falls of up to 200 mm 
  through central Queensland. The Queensland Government activated 
  natural disaster relief arrangements for up to ten shire council 
  areas, while food and medical supplies were delivered to isolated 
  properties. About 4000 sandbags were transported to Longreach to 
  protect homes from flooding.

     During the following 24-hour period, the LOW crossed the border into 
  New South Wales north of Lightning Ridge. The LOW's well-defined 
  circulation broke down as it crossed the Great Dividing Range.  The 
  LOW moved seaward near Sydney, reformed and swept rapidly away to the 
  south-southeast across the Tasman Sea.  The system brought moderate to 
  heavy falls to parts of inland New South Wales.  However, the monsoon
  LOW will be remembered for bringing the wettest January to many Queens-
  land centres since the extensive floods of 1974, amongst them Brisbane
  City (279 mm), Emerald (211 mm), Longreach (199 mm) and Mt Isa (392 mm).

     Many thanks to Laurier William whose excellent summary of this major 
  event can be found at the following link.  Here you will find extensive
  charts, graphs and further in-depth details of the event by clicking on
  the daily reports for 12-17 January 2004:>

  (Report written by Simon Clarke)


  SOUTH PACIFIC (SPA) - South Pacific Ocean East of Longitude 160E

  Activity for January:  1 intense tropical cyclone

                        Sources of Information

     The primary sources of tracking and intensity information for
  South Pacific tropical cyclones are the warnings and advisories
  issued by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres at Nadi, Fiji (for
  waters north of latitude 25S), and Wellington, New Zealand (for
  waters south of latitude 25S).  References to sustained winds imply
  a 10-minute averaging period unless otherwise stated.

     In the companion tropical cyclone tracks file, I occasionally
  annotate positions from warnings issued by the Joint Typhoon Warning
  Center (JTWC) of the U. S. Air Force and Navy, located at Pearl
  Harbor, Hawaii, when they differ from the Southern Hemisphere
  centres' coordinates by usually 40-50 nm or more.  The JTWC warnings
  are also the source of the 1-minute average maximum sustained wind
  values included in the tracks file.    Additionally, information
  describing details of satellite imagery and atmospheric circulation
  features included in the narratives is often gleaned from the JTWC

               South Pacific Tropical Activity for January

     Warnings were issued from the Nadi, Fiji, office for only one tropical
  system during January, but it was a monster.   The disturbance began to
  the north of Fiji in late December, but drifted slowly eastward for
  several days before developing significantly.  It was upgraded to
  Tropical Cyclone Heta on 2 January, and was destined to become a very
  intense tropical cyclone.  Heta caused some damage to Samoa as it moved
  very slowly southward a short distance to the west of Savai'i, but the
  greatest damage was done to the tiny island nation of Niue--the world's
  smallest nation.   The island was devastated, and there were concerns
  that there might be such a drop in population that Niue might have to
  return to being a New Zealand territory after having been independent 
  for 30 years.   A special thanks to Simon Clarke for authoring the 
  following report on Tropical Cyclone Heta.

                       TROPICAL CYCLONE HETA
                         (TD-03F / TC-07P)
                      28 December - 11 January

  A. Storm Origins

     Heta was the first tropical cyclone to form in RSMC Nadi's area of 
  responsibility during the 2003/2004 South Pacific tropical cyclone 
  season.  Continuing the trend of powerful Southeast Pacific storms 
  established during the 2002/2003 season, Heta achieved very intense 
  Category 5 tropical cyclone status with maximum (10-minute average) 
  winds estimated at about 115 knots and momentary gusts of up to 160 
  knots at its peak intensity.  

     The system which eventually developed into Heta originated in the
  area midway between Rotuma and Fiji on 25 December 2003 and was
  identified as Tropical Disturbance 03F.  It moved slowly eastward in
  the area just north of Fiji, gradually developing into a tropical
  depression on 28 December.  The depression continued to move north-
  eastward to just west of Atufu, the northernmost of the Tokelau 
  Islands, by 2 January 2004.  It was named Tropical Cyclone Heta at 
  0300 UTC on 2 January when located approximately 400 nautical miles
  east of Funafuti Atoll.

  B. Storm History

     Once named, Heta intensified rapidly while moving into an area with 
  weak shear (5-10 kts), excellent divergence aloft and SSTs of 29 C.
  Under a weak steering regime, Heta turned slowly southward.  The
  cyclone reached storm intensity around 02/1200 UTC and hurricane
  intensity around 0600 UTC on 3 January.  Peak intensity was attained
  at approximately 05/0000 UTC when the centre was passing about
  70 nautical miles to the west of Savai'i, Samoa, or about 135 nautical
  miles west of Apia, Samoa.   At the time, maximum (10-minute) average
  winds were approximately 115 knots close to the centre with peak gusts
  estimated at 160 knots.

     This intensity was maintained over the next 24 hours as Heta turned 
  to a southeastward track, accelerating to approximately 20 knots. 
  This track took the cyclone centre to within about 50 nautical miles 
  northeast of Niuatoputu in the northern Tonga Group around 05/1200 
  UTC, and very close to the west of Niue around 0300 UTC on 6 January.
  At 0300 UTC Heta was centred approximately 35 nm west-northwest of
  Alofi, Niue.  Heta moved out of RSMC Nadi's area of responsibility soon
  after 07/0000 UTC, maintaining its southeastward movement at about
  20 knots while gradually weakening.  RSMC Wellington took over the
  responsibility for warnings as Heta weakened under increasing vertical
  wind shear.  Heta had become extratropical by 2300 UTC on 7 January
  when located about 525 nautical miles south of Rarotonga.  The strong
  extratropical storm became quasi-stationary in that area and ultimately
  began to drift slowly westward.  The final reference to the system in
  Wellington's marine warnings was at 2300 UTC on the 11th.  At that time
  the former intense cyclone was a weakening 35-kt gale located
  approximately 1250 nautical miles east of Norfolk Island.

  (Editor's Note:  The peak MSW (1-min avg) reported by JTWC for Tropical
  Cyclone Heta was 140 kts, based on a Dvorak rating of T7.0.  The minimum
  estimated CP as reported by Nadi was 915 hPa.)

  C. Meteorological Observations

     Before meteorological instruments at the Niue Meteorological Station 
  failed, the minimum atmospheric pressure recorded was 945 hPa at 
  06/0411 UTC.   (Editor's Note: There was also an e-mail from Jeff
  Callaghan which mentioned a pressure of 933.5 hPa at 1705 local time
  on 5 January.)  Further data from Niue may be found at:>

  This site shows that several records were broken during the passage 
  of Heta.  Included are:
     Record high wind gust:   286.8 km/hr  (155 knots) from 061 deg at 
     14:37 (local time) on 05 January 2004 
     Record high average speed: 181.3 km/hr (98 knots) from 078 deg at 
     14:45 (local time) on 05 January 2004

     Record daily rain: 999.2 mm on 05 January 2004

  (Please note: It is neither clear how long meteorological data has 
  been recorded at this site nor how well the instruments have been 
  calibrated for extreme conditions)

  D. Damage and Casualties

     Heta caused destructive storm force winds and associated sea flooding 
  over northern and western parts of Samoa with one death reported.  Also
  destructive storm force winds occurred over Niuatoputapu in Tonga.
  However, it was Niue which was to bear the brunt of the very destructive
  hurricane force winds and associated extremely very high sea waves. 
  These caused extensive and severe damage that was reported to be the 
  worst seen in Niue in living memory.  Amazingly, only one death on the
  island was directly attributed to the cyclone. 

     Images of Heta from Niue are available at Geoff Mackley's web site 

     At the time of this report, no information on damage was available 
  from Tokelau, Wallis or Futuna.  In Samoa, there was extensive damage 
  to houses, power lines and crops due to heavy swells and sea flooding.
  One person was swept out to sea and was presumed dead.  Airline
  schedules were also disrupted.

     In Niue, it appeared that at least as much damage was caused by the 
  extremely high sea waves as by the wind.  Crops and island vegetation 
  were wiped out in the salt-laden winds.

     Media reports describe how the capital, Alofi, bore the brunt of the 
  cyclone with half of the commercial area wiped out.  Houses built atop 
  30-metre cliffs and others thought to be safe up to 100 metres inland 
  were destroyed.  According to these reports, worst hit was the 
  southern area of Aliluki where monstrous waves, rather than the wind, 
  appear to have been the main cause of the devastation.  A woman was 
  killed when a large wave smashed into the house where she and her
  19-month-old son were sheltering.  The boy received serious injuries,
  and despite evacuation to an Auckland Hospital (New Zealand), died some
  days later from skull injuries and lacerations.
     Communication to and from Niue was completely severed and the only 
  contact available was by satellite phone several days after the passage
  of the cyclone.  Much of the infrastructure on the island was destroyed. 
  Buildings and houses were either demolished or severely damaged, 
  subsequently releasing poisonous asbestos.   An estimate of the total
  damage to Niue is 50 million New Zealand dollars (NZ $50 million).  In
  the aftermath of the storm, some island leaders are calling for a return
  to New Zealand governance, and expect the population to fall from about
  1200 native Niueans to an unsustainable 500 people.  Such a drop would
  likely render the nation unviable.

     Niueans had been adamant they wanted to retain the status quo, i.e., 
  financial and administrative support from New Zealand while retaining 
  their own sovereignty.  But, as the smallest independent state in the 
  world, its constitutional status remained "under review".  Niue has 
  been self-governing in free association with New Zealand since 1974, 
  and New Zealand has an ongoing responsibility to provide necessary 
  economic and administrative assistance.

     Further information relating to the destruction wrought by Heta can 
  be found at the following URLs:


     A further interesting (though not rigorously vetted) account of Heta 
  can be found at>

  (Report written by Simon Clarke, with additional information supplied
  by Alipate Waqaicelua and Jeff Callaghan)


                             EXTRA FEATURE

     In order to shorten the amount of typing in preparing the narrative
  material, I have been in the habit of freely using abbreviations and
  acronyms.   I have tried to define most of these with the first usage
  in a given summary, but I may have missed one now and then.  Most of
  these are probably understood by a majority of readers but perhaps a
  few aren't clear to some.  To remedy this I developed a Glossary of
  Abbreviations and Acronyms which I first included in the July, 1998
  summary.  I don't normally include the Glossary in most months in
  order to help keep them from being too long.  If anyone would like to
  receive a copy of the Glossary, please e-mail me and I'll be happy
  to send them a copy.


  AUTHOR'S NOTE:  This summary should be considered a very preliminary 
  overview of the tropical cyclones that occur in each month. The cyclone
  tracks (provided separately) will generally be based upon operational
  warnings issued by the various tropical cyclone warning centers.  The
  information contained therein may differ somewhat from the tracking and
  intensity information obtained from a "best-track" file which is based
  on a detailed post-seasonal analysis of all available data. Information
  on where to find official "best-track" files from the various warning
  centers will be passed along from time to time.

    The track files are not being sent via e-mail.  They can be retrieved
  from the archive sites listed below.  (Note: I do have a limited e-mail
  distribution list for the track files.    If anyone wishes to receive
  these via e-mail, please send me a message.)

    Both the summaries and the track files are standard text files
  created in DOS editor.  Download to disk and use a viewer such as
  Notepad or DOS editor to view the files.

     The first summary in this series covered the month of October,
  1997.   Back issues can be obtained from the following websites
  (courtesy of Michael Bath, Michael V. Padua, Michael Pitt, and
  Chris Landsea):>>>

     Another website where much information about tropical cyclones may
  be found is the website for the UK Meteorological Office.  Their site
  contains a lot of statistical information about tropical cyclones
  globally on a monthly basis.  The URL is:>


     JTWC now has available on its website the complete Annual Tropical 
  Cyclone Report (ATCR) for 2002 (2001-2002 season for the Southern 
  Hemisphere).  ATCRs for earlier years are available also.  The report
  for the 2002-2003 Southern Hemisphere season has also recently been

     The URL is:>

     Also, TPC/NHC has available on its webpage nice "technicolor"
  tracking charts for the 2003 Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific
  tropical cyclones; also, storm reports for all the 2003 Atlantic
  and Eastern North Pacific cyclones are now available, as well as
  track charts and reports on storms from earlier years.

     The URL is:>

     A special thanks to Michael Bath of McLeans Ridges, New South Wales,
  Australia, for assisting me with proofreading the summaries.


  Gary Padgett
  Phone:  334-222-5327

  Kevin Boyle  (Eastern Atlantic, Western Northwest Pacific, South
                China Sea)

  Huang Chunliang  (Assistance with Western Northwest Pacific, South
                    China Sea)

  Simon Clarke  (Northeast Australia/Coral Sea, South Pacific)


Document: summ0401.htm
Updated: 26th October 2006

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